Matthew Henry's Commentary
Jacob calls his sons to bless them. (1,2) Reuben, Simeon, Levi. (3-7) Judah. (8-12) Zebulun, Issachar, Dan. (13-18) Gad, Asher,
Naphtali. (19-21) Joseph and Benjamin. (22-27) Jacob's charge respecting his burial, His death. (28-33)
1,2: All Jacob's sons were living. His calling them together was a precept for them to unite in love, not
to mingle with the Egyptians; and foretold that they should not be separated, as Abraham's sons and Isaac's were, but should
all make one people. We are not to consider this address as the expression of private feelings of affection, resentment, or
partiality; but as the language of the Holy Ghost, declaring the purpose of God respecting the character, circumstances, and
situation of the tribes which descended from the sons of Jacob, and which may be traced in their histories.
Verses 3-7: Reuben was the first-born; but by gross sin, he forfeited the birthright. The
character of Reuben is, that he was unstable as water. Men do not thrive, because they do not fix. Reuben's sin left a lasting
infamy upon his family. Let us never do evil, then we need not fear being told of it. Simeon and Levi were passionate and
revengeful. The murder of the Shechemites is a proof of this. Jacob protested against that barbarous act. Our soul is our
honour; by its powers we are distinguished from, and raised above, the beasts that perish. We ought, from our hearts, to abhor
all bloody and mischievous men. Cursed be their anger. Jacob does not curse their persons, but their lusts. I will divide
them. The sentence as it respects Levi was turned into a blessing. This tribe performed an acceptable service in their zeal
against the worshippers of the golden calf, (Ex 32). Being set apart to God as priests, they
were in that character scattered through the nation of Israel.
Judah's name signifies praise. God was praised for him, chap. (29:35), praised by him, and praised
in him; therefore his brethren shall praise him. Judah should be a strong and courageous tribe. Judah is compared, not to
a lion raging and ranging, but to a lion enjoying the satisfaction of his power and success, without creating vexation to
others; this is to be truly great. Judah should be the royal tribe, the tribe from which Messiah the Prince should come. Shiloh,
that promised Seed in whom the earth should be blessed, "that peaceable and prosperous One," or "Saviour,"
he shall come of Judah. Thus dying Jacob at a great distance saw Christ's day, and it was his comfort and support on his death-bed.
Till Christ's coming, Judah possessed authority, but after his crucifixion this was shortened, and according to what Christ
foretold, Jerusalem was destroyed, and all the poor harassed remnant of Jews were confounded together. Much which is here
said concerning Judah, is to be applied to our Lord Jesus. In him there is plenty of all which is nourishing and refreshing
to the soul, and which maintains and cheers the Divine life in it. He is the true Vine; wine is the appointed symbol of his
blood, which is drink indeed, as shed for sinners, and applied in faith; and all the blessings of his gospel are wine and
milk, without money and without price, to which every thirsty soul is welcome. (Isa 55:1).
13-18: Concerning Zebulun: if prophecy says, Zebulun shall be a haven of ships, be sure Providence will so
plant him. God appoints the bounds of our habitation. It is our wisdom and duty to accommodate ourselves to our lot, and to
improve it; if Zebulun dwell at the heaven of the sea, let him be for a haven of ships. Concerning Issachar: he saw that the
land was pleasant, yielding not only pleasant prospects, but pleasant fruits to recompense his toils. Let us, with an eye
of faith, see the heavenly rest to be good, and that land of promise to be pleasant; this will make our present services easy.
Dan should, by art, and policy, and surprise, gain advantages against his enemies, like a serpent biting the heel of the traveller.
Jacob, almost spent, and ready to faint, relieves himself with those words, "I have waited for thy salvation, O Lord!"
The salvation he waited for was Christ, the promised Seed; now that he was going to be gathered to his people, he breathes
after Him to whom the gathering of the people shall be. He declared plainly that he sought heaven, the better country, (Heb 11:13,14). Now he is going to enjoy the salvation, he comforts himself that he had waited for the
salvation. Christ, as our way to heaven, is to be waited on; and heaven, as our rest in Christ, is to be waited for. It is
the comfort of a dying saint thus to have waited for the salvation of the Lord; for then he shall have what he has been waiting
Verses 19-21: Concerning Gad, Jacob alludes to his name, which signifies
a troop, and foresees the character of that tribe. The cause of God and his people, though for a time it may seem to be baffled
and run down, will be victorious at last. It represents the Christian's conflict. Grace in the soul is often foiled in its
conflicts; troops of corruption overcome it, but the cause is God's, and grace will in the end come off conqueror, yea, more
than conqueror, (Ro 8:37). Asher should be a rich tribe. His inheritance bordered upon Carmel,
which was fruitful to a proverb. Naphtali, is a hind let loose. We may consider it as a description of the character of this
tribe. Unlike the laborious ox and ass; desirous of ease and liberty; active, but more noted for quick despatch than steady
labour and perseverance. Like the suppliant who, with goodly words, craves mercy. Let not those of different tempers and gifts
censure or envy one another.
Verses 22-27: The blessing of Joseph is
very full. What Jacob says of him, is history as well as prophecy. Jacob reminds him of the difficulties and fiery darts of
temptations he had formerly struggled through. His faith did not fail, but through his trials he bore all his burdens with
firmness, and did not do anything unbecoming. All our strength for resisting temptations, and bearing afflictions, comes from
God; his grace is sufficient. Joseph became the shepherd of Israel, to take care of his father and family; also the stone
of Israel, their foundation and strong support. In this, as in many other things, Joseph was a remarkable type of the Good
Shepherd, and tried Corner Stone of the whole church of God. Blessings are promised to Joseph's posterity, typical of the
vast and everlasting blessings which come upon the spiritual seed of Christ. Jacob blessed all his sons, but especially Joseph,
"who was separated from his brethren." Not only separated in Egypt, but, possessing eminent dignity, and more devoted
to God. Of Benjamin it is said, He shall ravin as a wolf. Jacob was guided in what he said by the Spirit of prophecy, and
not by natural affection; else he would have spoken with more tenderness of his beloved son Benjamin. Concerning him he only
foresees and foretells, that his posterity should be a warlike tribe, strong and daring, and that they should enrich themselves
with the spoils of their enemies; that they should be active. Blessed Paul was of this tribe, (Ro 11:1;
Php 3:5); he, in the morning of his day, devoured the prey as a persecutor, but in the evening divided the spoils as
a preacher; he shared the blessings of Judah's Lion, and assisted in his victories.
28-33: Jacob blessed every one according to the blessings God in after-times intended to bestow upon them.
He spoke about his burial-place, from a principle of faith in the promise of God, that Canaan should be the inheritance of
his seed in due time. When he had finished both his blessing and his charge, and so had finished his testimony, he addressed
himself to his dying work. He gathered up his feet into the bed, not only as one patiently submitting to the stroke, but as
one cheerfully composing himself to rest, now that he was weary. He freely gave up his spirit into the hand of God, the Father
of spirits. If God's people be our people, death will gather us to them. Under the care of the Shepherd of Israel, we shall
lack nothing for body or soul. We shall remain unmoved until our work is finished; then, breathing out our souls into His
hands for whose salvation we have waited, we shall depart in peace, and leave a blessing for our children after us.
David Burnette's Life Application
Each day we walk through the Bible chapter by chapter making
an application of our text to help us grow in the Lord. Many applications can be made from each day's text. Today we Continue
in the book of Genesis with Chapter 49 and in today's text we see a father of a family gathering
around all of his sons. Jacob, hands out the blessings to his sons according to their lives. Jacob, now named Israel, points
out the weakness, strengths, and sins of his sons rewarding and rebuking according to the works of their lives. Many
applications can be made from this text but what catches my eye today is family. These are the 12 sons that become
the 12 tribes of the Jewish nation still know as Israel today. Descending from the sons of good character were great
men like Aaron, Moses, Eli, King David, John the Baptist, Samson, Joshua, Deborah, Gideon, Ester, Paul, and the list goes
on and on with Jesus being the most notable in the good sons lineage. From the other 12 sons who were rebuked for their sinful
lives we have no notable record of great men or God using the offspring who descended from these sons. Isn't that just
like families today. Those who do right tend to have kids that excel while other have those that don't and we see them falling
into the same sin as their fathers and wasting their lives. I am not saying that kids of sinners are predestined for poor
lives but I am saying that a righteous man living before his kids puts them in the direction that produces Godly success.
How about you? How do you live before your family? Make decisions going forward from the examples in today's text and place
your family in the position of a Godly Successful Family.
Jacob called unto his sons, and said, Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last
2Gather yourselves together, and hear,
ye sons of Jacob; and hearken unto Israel your father.
thou art my firstborn, my might, and the beginning of my strength, the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power:
4Unstable as water, thou shalt not excel;
because thou wentest up to thy father's bed; then defiledst thou it: he went up to my couch.
5Simeon and Levi are brethren; instruments of cruelty are in their habitations.
6O my soul, come not thou into their secret;
unto their assembly, mine honour, be not thou united: for in their anger they slew a man, and in their selfwill they digged
down a wall.
7Cursed be their anger, for it
was fierce; and their wrath, for it was cruel: I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel.
8Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise: thy hand shall be in the neck
of thine enemies; thy father's children shall bow down before thee.
9Judah is a lion's whelp: from the prey, my son, thou art gone up: he stooped down, he couched as a
lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up?
sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering
of the people be.
11Binding his foal unto
the vine, and his ass's colt unto the choice vine; he washed his garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes:
12His eyes shall be red with wine, and his
teeth white with milk.
13Zebulun shall dwell
at the haven of the sea; and he shall be for an haven of ships; and his border shall be unto Zidon.
14Issachar is a strong ass couching down between two burdens:
15And he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his
shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute.
shall judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel.
shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path, that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward.
18I have waited for thy salvation, O LORD.
19Gad, a troop shall overcome him: but he shall overcome at the last.
20Out of Asher his bread shall be fat, and he shall yield royal dainties.
21Naphtali is a hind let loose: he giveth goodly words.
22Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well; whose branches run
over the wall:
23The archers have sorely grieved
him, and shot at him, and hated him:
his bow abode in strength, and the arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob; (from thence
is the shepherd, the stone of Israel:)
by the God of thy father, who shall help thee; and by the Almighty, who shall bless thee with blessings of heaven above, blessings
of the deep that lieth under, blessings of the breasts, and of the womb:
26The blessings of thy father have prevailed above the blessings of my progenitors unto the utmost
bound of the everlasting hills: they shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of him that was separate
from his brethren.
27Benjamin shall ravin
as a wolf: in the morning he shall devour the prey, and at night he shall divide the spoil.
28All these are the twelve tribes of Israel: and this is it that their father spake
unto them, and blessed them; every one according to his blessing he blessed them.
29And he charged them, and said unto them, I am to be gathered unto my people: bury me with my fathers
in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite,
the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre, in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought with the field
of Ephron the Hittite for a possession of a buryingplace.
they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah.
32The purchase of the field and of the cave that is therein was from the children
33And when Jacob had made an end
of commanding his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed, and yielded up the ghost, and was gathered unto his people.