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Matthew Henry's Commentary

Numbers Chapter 31

ar with Midian. (1-6) Balaam slain. (7-12) Those slain who caused sin. (13-38) Purification of the Israelites. (39-24) Division of the spoil. (25-47) Offerings. (48-54)

Verses 1-6: All who, without commission from God, dare to execute private revenge, and who, from ambition, covetousness, or resentment, wage war and desolate kingdoms, must one day answer for it. But if God, instead of sending an earthquake, a pestilence, or a famine, be pleased to authorize and command any people to avenge his cause, such a commission surely is just and right. The Israelites could show such a commission, though no persons now can do so. Their wars were begun and carried on expressly by Divine direction, and they were enabled to conquer by miracles. Unless it can be proved that the wicked Canaanites did not deserve their doom, objectors only prove their dislike to God, and their love to his enemies. Man makes light of the evil of sin, but God abhors it. This explains the terrible executions of the nations which had filled the measure of their sins.

Verses 7-12: The Israelites slew the Kings of Midian. They slew Balaam. God's overruling providence brought him thither, and their just vengeance found him. Had he himself rightly believed what he had said of the happy state of Israel, he would not have thus herded with the enemies of Israel. The Midianites' wicked wiles were Balaam's projects: it was just that he should perish with them, (Ho 4:5). They took the women and children captives. They burnt their cities and castles, and returned to the camp.

Verses 13-18: The sword of war should spare women and children; but the sword of justice should know no distinction, but that of guilty or not guilty. This war was the execution of a righteous sentence upon a guilty nation, in which the women were the worst criminals. The female children were spared, who, being brought up among the Israelites, would not tempt them to idolatry. The whole history shows the hatefulness of sin, and the guilt of tempting others; it teaches us to avoid all occasions of evil, and to give no quarter to inward lusts. The women and children were not kept for sinful purposes, but for slaves, a custom every where practised in former times, as to captives. In the course of providence, when famine and plagues visit a nation for sin, children suffer in the common calamity. In this case parents are punished in their children; and for children dying before actual sin, full provision is made as to their eternal happiness, by the mercy of God in Christ.

Verses 19-24: The Israelites had to purify themselves according to the law, and to abide without the camp seven days, though they had not contracted any moral guilt, the war being just and lawful, and commanded by God. Thus God would preserve in their minds a dread and detestation of shedding blood. The spoil had been used by Midianites, and being now come into the possession of Israelites, it was fit that it should be purified.

Verses 25-47: Whatever we have, God justly claims a part. Out of the people's share God required one in fifty, but out of the soldiers' share only one in five hundred. The less opportunity we have of honouring God with personal services, the more should we give in money or value.

Verses 48-54: The success of the Israelites had been very remarkable, so small a company overcoming such multitudes, but it was still more wonderful that not one was slain or missing. They presented the gold they found among the spoils, as an offering to the Lord. Thus they confessed, that instead of claiming a reward for their service, they needed forgiveness of much that had been amiss, and desired to be thankful for the preservation of their lives, which might justly have been taken away.

 

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Numbers 31

Numbers 31

 1And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

 2Avenge the children of Israel of the Midianites: afterward shalt thou be gathered unto thy people.

 3And Moses spake unto the people, saying, Arm some of yourselves unto the war, and let them go against the Midianites, and avenge the LORD of Midian.

 4Of every tribe a thousand, throughout all the tribes of Israel, shall ye send to the war.

 5So there were delivered out of the thousands of Israel, a thousand of every tribe, twelve thousand armed for war.

 6And Moses sent them to the war, a thousand of every tribe, them and Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest, to the war, with the holy instruments, and the trumpets to blow in his hand.

 7And they warred against the Midianites, as the LORD commanded Moses; and they slew all the males.

 8And they slew the kings of Midian, beside the rest of them that were slain; namely, Evi, and Rekem, and Zur, and Hur, and Reba, five kings of Midian: Balaam also the son of Beor they slew with the sword.

 9And the children of Israel took all the women of Midian captives, and their little ones, and took the spoil of all their cattle, and all their flocks, and all their goods.

 10And they burnt all their cities wherein they dwelt, and all their goodly castles, with fire.

 11And they took all the spoil, and all the prey, both of men and of beasts.

 12And they brought the captives, and the prey, and the spoil, unto Moses, and Eleazar the priest, and unto the congregation of the children of Israel, unto the camp at the plains of Moab, which are by Jordan near Jericho.

 13And Moses, and Eleazar the priest, and all the princes of the congregation, went forth to meet them without the camp.

 14And Moses was wroth with the officers of the host, with the captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, which came from the battle.

 15And Moses said unto them, Have ye saved all the women alive?

 16Behold, these caused the children of Israel, through the counsel of Balaam, to commit trespass against the LORD in the matter of Peor, and there was a plague among the congregation of the LORD.

 17Now therefore kill every male among the little ones, and kill every woman that hath known man by lying with him.

 18But all the women children, that have not known a man by lying with him, keep alive for yourselves.

 19And do ye abide without the camp seven days: whosoever hath killed any person, and whosoever hath touched any slain, purify both yourselves and your captives on the third day, and on the seventh day.

 20And purify all your raiment, and all that is made of skins, and all work of goats' hair, and all things made of wood.

 21And Eleazar the priest said unto the men of war which went to the battle, This is the ordinance of the law which the LORD commanded Moses;

 22Only the gold, and the silver, the brass, the iron, the tin, and the lead,

 23Every thing that may abide the fire, ye shall make it go through the fire, and it shall be clean: nevertheless it shall be purified with the water of separation: and all that abideth not the fire ye shall make go through the water.

 24And ye shall wash your clothes on the seventh day, and ye shall be clean, and afterward ye shall come into the camp.

 25And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

 26Take the sum of the prey that was taken, both of man and of beast, thou, and Eleazar the priest, and the chief fathers of the congregation:

 27And divide the prey into two parts; between them that took the war upon them, who went out to battle, and between all the congregation:

 28And levy a tribute unto the LORD of the men of war which went out to battle: one soul of five hundred, both of the persons, and of the beeves, and of the asses, and of the sheep:

 29Take it of their half, and give it unto Eleazar the priest, for an heave offering of the LORD.

 30And of the children of Israel's half, thou shalt take one portion of fifty, of the persons, of the beeves, of the asses, and of the flocks, of all manner of beasts, and give them unto the Levites, which keep the charge of the tabernacle of the LORD.

 31And Moses and Eleazar the priest did as the LORD commanded Moses.

 32And the booty, being the rest of the prey which the men of war had caught, was six hundred thousand and seventy thousand and five thousand sheep,

 33And threescore and twelve thousand beeves,

 34And threescore and one thousand asses,

 35And thirty and two thousand persons in all, of women that had not known man by lying with him.

 36And the half, which was the portion of them that went out to war, was in number three hundred thousand and seven and thirty thousand and five hundred sheep:

 37And the LORD'S tribute of the sheep was six hundred and threescore and fifteen.

 38And the beeves were thirty and six thousand; of which the LORD'S tribute was threescore and twelve.

 39And the asses were thirty thousand and five hundred; of which the LORD'S tribute was threescore and one.

 40And the persons were sixteen thousand; of which the LORD'S tribute was thirty and two persons.

 41And Moses gave the tribute, which was the LORD'S heave offering, unto Eleazar the priest, as the LORD commanded Moses.

 42And of the children of Israel's half, which Moses divided from the men that warred,

 43(Now the half that pertained unto the congregation was three hundred thousand and thirty thousand and seven thousand and five hundred sheep,

 44And thirty and six thousand beeves,

 45And thirty thousand asses and five hundred,

 46And sixteen thousand persons;)

 47Even of the children of Israel's half, Moses took one portion of fifty, both of man and of beast, and gave them unto the Levites, which kept the charge of the tabernacle of the LORD; as the LORD commanded Moses.

 48And the officers which were over thousands of the host, the captains of thousands, and captains of hundreds, came near unto Moses:

 49And they said unto Moses, Thy servants have taken the sum of the men of war which are under our charge, and there lacketh not one man of us.

 50We have therefore brought an oblation for the LORD, what every man hath gotten, of jewels of gold, chains, and bracelets, rings, earrings, and tablets, to make an atonement for our souls before the LORD.

 51And Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold of them, even all wrought jewels.

 52And all the gold of the offering that they offered up to the LORD, of the captains of thousands, and of the captains of hundreds, was sixteen thousand seven hundred and fifty shekels.

 53(For the men of war had taken spoil, every man for himself.)

 54And Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold of the captains of thousands and of hundreds, and brought it into the tabernacle of the congregation, for a memorial for the children of Israel before the LORD.